Linux commands are instructions that can be typed into the command line interface (CLI) to perform various tasks. The CLI is a text-based interface that allows users to enter commands to interact with the operating system.
Here is the information about Linux commands and the meaning of symbols and commands used:
- Most Linux commands are case-sensitive.
- Many commands have multiple options that can be specified using a single dash followed by a single letter (e.g.
ls -l) or a double dash followed by a word (e.g.
- Some options take an argument, which is specified after the option (e.g.
grep -i "pattern" file.txt).
--helpoption is available for most commands and displays information about how to use the command and what options are available.
mancommand displays the manual page for a command, which provides detailed information about how to use the command and what options are available.
~symbol represents the home directory of the current user.
.symbol represents the current directory, and the
..symbol represents the parent directory.
/symbol is used to separate directories in a file path (e.g.
*symbol is a wildcard and can be used to match any characters in a file name (e.g.
ls *txtwould match all files ending in
|symbol is used to pipe the output of one command into another command (e.g.
ls | grep "pattern").
>symbol is used to redirect the output of a command to a file (e.g.
ls > files.txt).
>>symbol is used to append the output of a command to a file (e.g.
ls >> files.txt).
<symbol is used to redirect the input of a command from a file (e.g.
sort < files.txt).
&symbol is used to run a command in the background.
;symbol is used to separate multiple commands on a single line (e.g.
&&symbol is used to run multiple commands in sequence, with the second command only executing if the first command is successful (e.g.
cd /home/user && ls).
||symbol is used to run multiple commands in sequence, with the second command only executing if the first command fails (e.g.
grep "pattern" file.txt || echo "pattern not found").
aliascommand is used to create a shortcut for a command.
whichcommand is used to find the location of an executable file.
whereiscommand is used to find the location of a command’s binary, source, and manual page files.
typecommand is used to display the type of a command (e.g. alias, built-in, or external).
echocommand is used to print text to the terminal.
printfcommand is similar to
echo, but allows for more advanced formatting of the output.
touchcommand is used to create an empty file or update the timestamps of an existing file.
cpcommand is used to copy files and directories.
mvcommand is used to move or rename files and directories.
Linux distribution Examples
There are many different Linux distributions, each with its own features and purposes. Some of the most popular ones include:
- Ubuntu: One of the most popular Linux distributions, known for its ease of use and large software repository. It is also one of the most popular and comprehensive distros used on servers. You can download Ubuntu here: https://ubuntu.com/download
- Debian: Another popular distribution, known for its stability and large software repository. Debian is the base of several other Linux distros including Ubuntu itself. You can download Debian here: https://www.debian.org/distrib/
- Fedora: A community-driven distribution sponsored by Red Hat. It is known for its cutting-edge features and software. You can download Fedora here: https://getfedora.org/en/workstation/download/
- Arch Linux: A lightweight and flexible distribution that allows for highly customized and minimal systems. It is for advanced users who are comfortable with using the command line. You can download Arch Linux here: https://www.archlinux.org/download/
- Mint: A beginner-friendly distribution based on Ubuntu, known for its ease of use and clean interface. You can download Mint here: https://www.linuxmint.com/download.php
These are just a few examples of the many different Linux distributions available. Each distribution has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the best one for you will depend on your specific needs and experience level.
Please note that depending on your system architecture you may need to get either 32-bit or 64-bit version. And it’s always wise to verify the downloaded image integrity before installing.